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Aerate - Make openings in the soil to allow for air infiltration.
Annual - A plant that completes it's life cycle all in one growing season. The seed will germinate,
grow, bloom, go to seed, then die all in 1 year or less.
Backfill - To fill in a hole where you have placed a plant, covering the roots with soil.
Bare root- A plant with no soil surrounding the roots. Some trees, shrubs, and perennials are often dug out of the ground when dormant, soil removed then stored till ready to ship or sell from nurseries and greenhouses. Best purchased and planted in Spring.
Biennial - A plant that completes it's life cycle in two years; (two growing seasons); or less. Planted seeds in Spring will grow to seedlings in the summer of the first year, then the plant will bloom in the next Spring, go to seed, then die.
Bolt - When a plant grows to quickly producing flowers and goes to seed too soon. Usually due to
extreme hot weather or late plantings in the growing season.
Bud - A small form on a branch or stem which will develop into a flower, leaf, or shoot.
Bulb - A plant that grows from a thick, fleshy plant bud, usually under the surface of the soil. These 'Bulbs' protect and store food for the developing plant inside which will than grow and bloom from these bulbs from one growing season to another.
Common Name - The common name is most used by gardeners. Easier to remember, but can get confusing. Botanical names are the same everywhere. Some common names are used for two different plants. So when wanting a particular flower it is best to find out what it's botanical name is. This way you can be sure to get the right plant when buying flowers or seeds.
Complete fertilizer - A fertilizer that contains these three major nutrients; Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium.
Compost - Humus enriched organic material produced from the decomposition of leaves, grass
clippings, dead plant matter, and other sources of organic materials such as fruit and vegetable
peelings. Provides an excellent soil improver, and natural fertilizer.
Crown - The part of a plant at ground level, between the roots and stem or trunk.
Cultivate - To work and prepare the soil. To prepare the soil by breaking it up and removing weeds before planting, and to work the soil around plants to improve air flow and moisture, as well as the removal of any weeds.
Cuttings - A piece of a stem, root, or leaf cut from a plant to propagate a new plant.
Deadhead - The removal of dead and faded flowers.
Defoliation - When a plant loses its leaves as a result of disease or current health. Also, by natural means; such as strong winds, frost or extreme heat can cause a plant to lose its leaves prematurely.
Direct seed - To sow seeds directly outside in the garden.
Dividing - A method of plant propagation. Used to multiply bulbs, perennials and shrubs. The plants are dug up and separated. The parts that are capable of producing roots are replanted, giving gardeners multiple plants.
Drainage - The passing of water down through the soil, and plant's roots. Good drainage is necessary to grow healthy plants. When water drains quickly through the plants root area, not leaving the roots overly moist for long periods of time; the drainage is considered good. It allows a balance of air and moisture for the roots to grow healthy.   
Established - When a newly transplanted plant's roots have become firmly rooted and the plant itself is showing healthy new growth, it  is then considered established.
Fertilize - Usually means to apply nutrients to growing plants. Such as store bought plant food.
Flat - A tray that is quite shallow. Usually used for starting seeds in.
Force - By creating ideal temperatures, a dormant plant can be caused to grow and bloom out of its normal growing season. Bulbs are a common plant that can be forced with the right conditions.
Genus - A scientific name for a category of plants which have similar growth habits, and flower
characteristics.
Grafting - A method of propagation. To join two plants together by touching both growing tissues from each plant. 
Harden off - To expose a plant to the outdoors gradually over a couple of weeks before transplanting into the outside gardens.
Hardiness or  (Hardy) - Plants are rated how hardy they are depending on how well they survive
through the winters without any protection.
Hardiness zones - Gardeners often use this to determine if a plant will grow well in an area.
Geographical regions are divided  into Hardiness Zones based on the average cold temperatures for an area.
Humus - Humus is the end result of the decomposition of organic or plant matter, which helps
improve soil. Usually the color of brown or black. Humus is home for other micro-organisms and worms that will help break down organic matter.
Hybrid - A plant that is a result due to the crossing of genetically different plants
 
 
 
Interplanting - Arranging and planting plants in the garden that have different blooming times, and
habits of growth. This allows extended blooming times, and possibly less disease.
Layering - A method used for propagating a plant. This is done by rooting a branch that is till
attached to a plant. When roots have formed the new plant is cut away from the mother plant to
form a new plant.
Leaf mould - Leaves that have decomposed. Than used as compost. Great for mulching in the
colder seasons.
Loam - Soil that is rich with organic material, loose, and good drainage, but moist. It is known as
the ideal soil for growing plants.
Medium - Soil or potting mixture.
Hardiness zones - Gardeners often use this to determine if a plant will grow well in an area.
Geographical regions are divided  into Hardiness Zones based on the average cold temperatures for an area.
Humus - Humus is the end result of the decomposition of organic or plant matter, which helps
improve soil. Usually the color of brown or black.  Humus is home for other micro-organisms and worms that will help break down organic matter.
Hybrid - A plant that is a result due to the crossing of genetically different plants
Interplanting - Arranging and planting plants in the garden that have different blooming times, and
habits of growth. This allows extended blooming times, and possibly less disease.
Layering - A method used for propagating a plant. This is done by rooting a branch that is till
attached to a plant. When roots have formed the new plant is cut away from the mother plant to
form a new plant.
Leaf mould - Leaves that have decomposed. Than used as compost. Great for mulching in the
colder seasons.
Loam - Soil that is rich with organic material, loose, and good drainage, but moist. It is known as
the ideal soil for growing plants.
Medium - Soil or potting mixture.
Microclimate - Localized areas; in a garden or yard, that has different climate conditions from the area around it, allowing plants to survive in your garden that would not usually grow well.
Mulch - A protective covering of material placed on the soil. It is a good way to help keep weeds from growing in your garden. Mulch also can help keep moisture in the soil, keep plant roots warm
in the spring and fall, or cool in the summer. Mulch is made from organic or inorganic material. Such as, ground bark, sawdust, leaves, or straw.
Organic matter - Material that is made from any decomposed plants or animals.
Overwinter - To help a plant live through the winter season allowing it to live on into another growing season.
Peat pot - Containers made from compressed peat moss. Biodegradable, therefore seedlings can be planting in the garden without removing the peat pot. 
Perennial - A plant that will germinate, grow, bloom, and die down for the winter, but grows in spring again. Year after year.  Annuals and perennials can be grouped into many different specific plant needs, growing conditions or characteristics. For example, Annuals such Marigolds, Sunflowers, and Zinnias all grow well in a garden that gets full sun. These would be known as annuals for a sunny garden. This helps gardeners to choose the right plant for their gardens.  
Perlite - A mineral that expands due to heat which turns into light porous granules. Adding perlite improves soil mixes because the granules help retain water and air.
Pinching - The removal of new growth from a plant to encourage a more bushy, fuller plant. The word 'Pinching' came from the fact that you use your thumb and fore finger to pinch the new growth off the plant instead of a tool.
Propagation - Any reproduction of a plant.
Rogue - The removal of unwanted plants from the garden.
Rootbound - A containerized plant's roots that have completely filled the soil inside container. Thus causing a unhealthy plant due to no room for new growth. Frequent repotting of plants in containers will help to prevent rootbound plants. 
Species - Another scientific name for a group of plants that breed together and have characteristics that stay the same, but can also be different in a small way. Such as flower color.
Sucker - Any vertical shoot growing from the base or trunk of a tree.
Thatch - A layer of partially decomposed leaves and other plant matter under plants in a  lawn or soil.
Thinning out - The removal of excess seedlings; so those plants that remain have room to grow healthy and strong.  Also, to remove whole branches from trees, shrubs, or plants to promote healthier growth, and maintain size.  
Topdress - To apply a layer on the top of the soil. A fertilizer, or organic material are commonly
placed on top of the soil, but not worked into the soil. 
Variety - A name also used to identify a group of plants with a specific difference within a species. The word variety and cultivar are often interchanged by gardeners.
Underplanting - When you plant a plant beneath another; usually a taller plant.
Vermiculite - A light mineral; (mica) that can be added to soil mixes to improve aeration, and moisture. A great soil improver in soil mixes for container gardening.